Postgraduate Diploma in Leadership and Accountability

The programme is intended to provide learners with guiding principles for innovative decision-making, planning and implementing actions to solve problems in various fields of development for the benefit of society.


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  • PLA 711 Leadership and Accountability Fundamentals
    Topics in this course include: Conceptualization of Leadership and Accountability; a) Definition of the terms, leader, leadership and accountability; Comparison of the terms leadership and accountability; Roles of an Accountable Leader, Setting goals, Organising, Take initiatives, Cooperation among employees, Motivation and direction, Liaison between workers and management, Policy making; Leadership qualities: visionary, Audacity, Motivating, Positive, Knowledgeable, responsible, ethical, communicative, decisive, inspiring, Reliable, etc; Skills and competences: technical competence; human skills, conceptual skills; Theories of Leadership I, a) Group and Exchange theory; b) Contingency theory; c) Social learning theory; and d)Behavioural theory; Approaches to leadership, a)Traits, Situational and Relational; Leadership Approaches II: a) Gender perspective on Leadership; Principles of Leadership and Accountability: Transparency, participation, evaluation and feedback. The 3 - Cs of accountability; Leadership Types/styles II a)Servant-Leadership, b)Utilitarian Transactional, c)Transformative, i)team leadership, j)spiritual leadership. Etc; Leadership types/styles: a)Autocratic/Authoritarian, b)Participative/Democratic, c)laissez faire, d) Charismatic.
  • PLA 712 Organisational Design and Change Management
    Topics in this course include: The concepts of Organizational Design and Organizational Change: a) The concept of organizational design b) The concept of organizational change c) Types of Organizational Design d) Change Management Process; Organizational Theories a) Types of Organizational theories; System Theory and Complexity Theory b) Understanding organizational leadership theories c) Organizational theory in relation to change management d) Application of organzational theory in leadership; Organizational Models a) The concept of organizational models b) Types of organizational model c) Organization Models in relation to change management d) Application of organizational models in leadership; Organizational Structure a) Definition of Organizational structure b) Characteristics of structures c) Types of organizational structures d) New way of structuring (network and project); Organisational culture: a) meaning of and characteristics of organisational culture b) key theorists and their contributions, c) types of organisational culture; d) cultural diversity, e) negotiation and consensus building across cultures; Organizational Diagnosis a)Need for change b) Diagnosing Organizational Issues c)Determination of what to change d)Organizational Review; Organisational Change management: a) change management , b) planned and c) unplanned change d) organizational change models Resistance to change a) Reactions to change b) Why people resist change c) Why change efforts fail d) Dealing with resistance to change; Organisational targets of change: a) People focused, b) culture, technology and structure c) leading change, d) managing change. Design Thinking a) The concept of Design Thinking b) Characteristics of design thinking c) Importance of Design Thinking d) Design thinking process e) Application of Design Thinking in Leadership.
  • PLA 713 Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Leadership
    Topics in this course include: Introduction to critical thinking a)The concept of critical thinking b) Types of critical thinking c) Critical thinking skills d) Importance of critical thinking;Cognitive Thinking a) Definition of cognition b) Cognitive abilities and skills c) Importance of cognition in critical thinking e) Limitation of cognition; Reasoning a)Definition of Reasoning b) Importance of reasoning in decision making c) Relationship between reasoning and critical thinking d) Improving Reasoning Capacity ;Logical Thinking a) Definition of Logic b) Importance of thinking Logically c) Deductive vs inductive reasoning d) Logical thinking skills; Statements vs arguments a) Definition of Statement and argument b) Purpose of statement and argument c) Difference between statement and arguments d) Understanding Assumption; Cognitive Bias a) Definition of cognitive bias b)Myths about cognitive bias c) Impact of cognitive bias to critical thinking d) Debiasing strategies ;Theories in Critical Thinking a) the right brain (intuition) and left brain (logic) theory, b) John Dewey’s Theory ;Barriers to Critical Thinking a) Egocentric Thinking b) Group Think c) Drone Mentality and Cognitive Fatigue d) Allostatic Overload ;Critical thinking and Creative Thought System a) Conceptualization of terms b) Techniques for thinking effectively c) Creative Thinking Exercise d) Application of Debonos thinking hats;Problem Solving a) Definition of a problem b) Methods of solving problems c)Recognizing Patterns d) Making Choices and Decisions
  • PLA 714 Leadership and Communication
    Topics in this course include Understanding communication; a) Definition of communication b) communication process c) speakers vs communicators:Communication Models a) The Betari Box b) Mehrabian’s Rule c) Thomas-Kilmann Conflict MODE Instrument; Fundamentals of Leadership and Communication a)The concept of Leadership b) Leadership and Management c) Successful Leadership d) Communication that supports Leadership;Organizing and Delivering thoughts and messages a) Understanding your leadership role and its relation to communication b) Organizing your ideas using mind mapping c) Presenting vs Public Speaking d) Essentials of Public Speaking ;Earning Credibility as a leader a) Characteristics of a credible Leader b) Changing communication Style depending on team member and condition c) Motivating through communication d) Creating an environment of engagement ;Winning minds and Hearts of People a) Knowing your audience b) Adjusting your message to accommodate audience’s needs,wants and style c) Communicating difficult news or unpopular messages d) Leading and communicating during crisis ;Building Consensus,Commitment and Cooperation a)Principles of Ethical Leadership b)Ethical Dilemmas faced by Leaders c) Techniques for Building Consensus d) Securing Commitment and Cooperation to Change Initiatives ; Leading Organizational Communication a) Controlling and Managing Rumors b)Dealing and Managing Office Conflicts c) Responding to Key Political Behaviour d) Types of Grapevine Chain;Leading Cultural Change a) Concept of Culture b)Culture and Communication c)Choosing Appropriate Channels of Communication d) Communicating and Leading Organizational Vision, Mission and Values; Effective Communication a) Principles of communication b) Own Communication Strength and Growth Areas c) Preparation of Oral Presentation d) Preparation of Written Presentation
  • PLA 715 Strategic Leadership
    Modules in the course include;History of the concept of strategy a) Definition, b)Origin, c)History, Applicability of strategy Dimensions; The strategic process a) intelligence gathering, b) strategy formulation, c)strategy implementation d)strategy monitoring, reviewing and updating ; Perspectives on Micro strategic analysis: a) Definition b) Micro- SWOT Analysis c)7s Mckinsey d) Applicability of Micro perspectives strategic analysis; , Meso Analysis a) Five porters model b)BCG matrix ,c) Competitive Analysis d) Analysis of Enterprise portfolio ;Macro Analysis a) Concept of PESTEL model b) Political Environment and Economic Environment c) Socio technological Environment d)Applicability of the model ; Modes of strategic processes a) Entrepreneurial b) Adaptive c)Planning,d) Applicability of strategic modes; Leaders’ roles and capacity a) Definition b) Roles of Leaders c) Capacity of Leaders , d) Best Practice; Characteristics of Strategic leadership, a) Definition and qualities b) challenges and obstacles, c) strategy and decision making, d) Human resource development, e) Mentoring and succession; Strategic thinking competencies; a)Systematic thinking b) Creative thinking c)Visionary thinking d) Acumen & Result oriented; Organisational culture a) Definition b)Creation and influence c) Types of culture d) Components of culture & importance of culture d) Organisational effectiveness.
  • PLA 716 Research Methods for Leaders (P)
    The concept of Research a)Basic research b) Applied Research c)The purpose of Research d) The research problem:Formulating Research Objectives a) The purpose of research objectives b) Formulating research aims and objectives c) Developing Research aims and objectives d)Research Questions and Hypothesis Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks a) Understanding theoretical frameworks b) Understanding Conceptual frameworks c) Developing a theoretical framework and Designing conceptual frameworks d) Integrating theoretical and conceptual frameworks research Literature Review a) What is Literature review b) The purpose of Literature review c) Identification of literature aligned to the research questions d) Managing and synthesizing the research literature: Research Designs and Data Collection: a) Types of research designs b)Selection of research designs c) Qualitative data collection d) Quantitative data collection) Sampling in Research a) Target population b)Sampling procedures c) Types of sampling d) Determining the sample size Data Analysis a) Introduction to data analysis b) Categories of Data Analysis c) d) Mixed methods data analysis Research Findings a) Strategies for interpreting research findings b ) Validity of Findings c)Dissemination of research results d) Leaders' role in the uptake of research findings d) Implications of findings on policy: Ethical Considerations in Research a) What is Ethics in Research b) Why ethical considerations in research of importance c) Ethical challenges of researchers d Writing and presenting research proposal a) Concept papers for Grants b )Grants proposal writing; c) report writing d) Dissemination of findings
  • PLA 717 Corporate Governance
    Governance issues in management and types c) Importance of corporate governance d)Applicability of Governace; Theories of corporate governance a)Agency theory , b) Stakeholder theory, c) Stewardship Theory d) applicability of theories in governance; Theories of Corporate Governance a) Transaction cost theory b) Resource Dependency Theory c) Political theory d) Applicability of external theories; Principles of Corporate Governance, a) Accountability b) Transparency c) Fairness d) Responsivity; Models of Corporate Governance, a) Anglo American Model b) German Model c) Japanese Model d) applicability of models ; Models of Corporate governance a)Social control Model b) Indian Model c) Usefulness of the Modelsd) Applicability of the models ; Structure of Corporate governance a) General meeting of Shareholders b) Audit Committee c) Board of Directors d) Management Practice of Corporate Governance; Corporate Governance and Internal Audit a) Definition b) Internal audit and Risk Management c) Benefits of Direct reporting to Board Audit Committee d) Challenges of Direct reporting of Internal Audit to Board Committee; Corporate Governance and CSR a) Definition of CSR b) Corporate governance and sustainability c) Benefits of CSRd) Practice of CSR; Corporate Governance and Innovation a) Definition of Innovation b) Corporate Governance and innovations c) Benefits of Innovation d) adoption of innovation in governance; Corporate Governance and Performance a) Effectiveness and efficiency of operations b) Reliability of Financial reporting c) Compliance with Laws & regulation d) safeguarding of Assets.
  • PLA 718 Leadership in Conflict and Risk Management
    The concept of conflict, a) Conceptualising Conflict, b) Types, stages, and levels of conflict, c) consequences of conflict d) Cultural components of conflict. Conflict Theories a) Understanding Conflict Theories b) Organizational Conflict Theory c) John Galtung and the Conflict Triangle d) Application of Conflict Theories in Leadership Conflict management approaches and mechanism, a)Skills for handling and resolving conflicts-Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), b) Conflict management styles of leadership c) Conflict resolution strategies in management d) Turning conflict into growth opportunities Addressing and de-escalating conflict in a team a) definition and components of an early warning and response system; b) Risk analysis; the meaning of risk and types of risk, c) Defining uncertainty Levels, d)uncertainty impact assessment Risk Mapping a) What is Risk Mapping? b) The Importance of Risk Mapping c) Key Elements of a good risk management Plan d) Risk Hazard Matrix Risk Management in Leadership. a)Risk Oversight and Integration, b) contingency planning c) Organizational wide risk perspective d) The role of Leadership in risk management Roles, functions and responsibilities of various actors in conflict and risk management a) Mapping and Inclusion of Various Actors b) Political Actors c) International Actors d) Financial and Material Support for conflict and risk management Leadership and Conflict Management a) Levels of Organizational Conflict b)Understanding Systemic, cultural, situational, relational and psychological nature of conflict c) Leadership styles that cause conflict d) Building a strong culture of inclusion and diversity d)Conflict resolution vs conflict transformation; a) Transformational Leadership b) c) d) Leadership Competencies a)negotiation, mediation, b) arbitration, and intervention c) Active Listening and Communication d) Collaboration and Teamwork
  • PLA 719 Design Thinking and Innovation
    People centred Design: a) Introduction to design thinking b)design thinking phases, c) benefits of design thinking people centred design methodology; Design thinking tools: a) A concept map, b)stakeholder map, and c)Customer Journey map; d)leveraging empathy to drive business growth and achieve better results; Research for design thinking: a)Research with users and their contexts; b)question framing and their context; c)observation, d)interviewing, and e)immersive empathy, and f)develop ideas for innovative products and services by keeping your users’ needs at the centre of the development; Design analysis: a)User stories and themes, b)personas, c)insight statements, d)design strategy statements; Problems Discovery: a)Overview of problem discovery, b)examining and reflecting on problems, c)reconsidering the right problem to solve, d)affinity diagram; Stories and Prototypes: a)What is prototyping? b)Benefits of Prototyping, c)Scenarios and storyboards, d)rapid prototyping, e)stories and prototypes; Leadership in times of uncertainty and disruptions: a)Leadership competencies in the age of disruptions, b) leadership empathy and human centricity, c) Connectional Intelligence; Ideating: a)Overview of Insight, b)the art of ideating, c)Learning and derisking new offers and ideas, d) Insight report and Iterating; Useability testing of design solutions: a)Overview of useability testing, b) Importance of testing your design with people, c)design freedom, d)Conducting useability test; Refining and Pitching: a)Record results; b)enhance, retest ad refine design, c)Creating a pitch for design. Developing Team resilience in a constantly changing operating environment: a)Definition and essence of resilience in the workplace; b.)Building resilience, c)Resilience skills and tools, d)The 7Cs of team resilience: competence, confidence, connection, character, contribution, coping, and control, e)Evaluating team’s resilience, and f)Mentoring resilience.
  • PLA 721 Accountability and Accountability Systems
    Definition and History, a) Meaning of accountability and Responsibility; b) history and development of the concept of accountability; Types of Accountability, a)political accountability, social accountability, b)bureaucratic, professional, community and market accountability c) accountability in government, private and non-government sectors; Public accountability institutions: a) the electoral system; b)legislatures; c)reporting structures within bureaucracies; d)oversight and regulatory agencies; e)public expenditure management systems; and f)the judiciary. Accountability and Citizen engagement: a)engaging the political system, b) engaging financial planning and auditing, c) engaging with the judiciary and law enforcement agencies; Creating an Accountable Organisation I: Internal and External accountability, the Accountability Cycle, The Building Blocks of accountability: Establishing purpose, setting goals and defining a score keeping system; Creating an Accountable organisation II: Feedback mechanisms for public scrutiny, access to information, balanced scorecard; Creating an Accountable Organization III: Coaching for Accountability; coaching tools: Questions, Feedback, Recognition, 360-degree reviews; Using Benchmarks to Drive Performance: Benchmarking, Data driven Benchmarking, peer-based benchmarking, and standards-based benchmarking; 8) Delegation and accountability a) Understanding Delegation, b) Monitoring Delegation, c) The Ingredients of Good Feedback; Accountability Stakeholders a) Roles and responsibilities of stakeholders in accountability, b) analyses of stakeholders (educational setting: governments, schools, teachers, parents and students, international organisations, private and non-profit organisations), c) Oversight and expenditure accountability; Individual vs Organisational Accountability, a) Individual accountability in collaborative learning, individual and team performance, team accountability; Accountability challenges: identify major accountability issues and challenges encountered in the professional or specific work setting; Bias and Capture, inadequate resources; National Accountability systems: comparison of national systems of performance assessments in education.